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A variety of neurologic conditions present more often in individuals of advancing age. Among seniors, the majority of seizure disorders are secondary to symptomatic causes (TABLE 1) that are frequently age-related. In some instances, if an underlying etiology is identified and corrected, the patient may not require long-term antiepileptic drug (ED) therapy roche catalogue 2).

There is a relatively high frequency of epilepsy in the elderly that is now being recognized. Seizure Disorders Seizures and epilepsies are often referred to by the umbrella term seizure disorders. Symptoms of a seizure are dependent upon the seizure type. Even though seizures can roche catalogue from individual to individual, they tend to roche catalogue stereotyped within a patient.

Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs), classified as major convulsive episodes, are always accompanied by a loss of consciousness. Complex partial seizures may produce somatosensory or focal motor features and roche catalogue associated with altered consciousness.

Finally, absence seizures can typically appear bland, with extremely brief (i. Traumatic Brain Injury Seizures may occur as a neurological consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Miscellaneous Issues Dental care for the seizure patient should include the use of roche catalogue topical rinses (e.

Some clinicians initiate AED therapy after the onset of roche catalogue first seizure and others utilize treatment prophylactically in patients who have experienced insult to the CNS that will probably evolve into epilepsy, such as a stroke or TBI. Ultimately, the Zoladex 3.6 (Goserelin Acetate Implant)- Multum goal for epilepsy is no seizures roche catalogue the absence of side effects with an optimal quality of life.

Concurrent medications in the geriatric medication regimen may reduce absorption of certain AEDs, thereby decreasing their bioavailability. Because roche catalogue this, it is usually more beneficial to measure free AED levels rather than routine total AED levels in the elderly. The volume of distribution for fat-soluble drugs is greater in seniors due to roche catalogue increased ratio of fat to roche catalogue muscle, which may ultimately prolong the elimination half-life of AEDs.

Elevated serum half-lives are likely with AEDs roche catalogue are extensively metabolized by the liver (e. Decreased renal clearance in the elderly (i. Seniors are typically pharmacodynamically more sensitive to the therapeutic and toxic effects of AEDs. Although it is beyond roche catalogue scope cord umbilical care this roche catalogue to discuss the pharmacologic management of roche catalogue in detail, the reader is referred to Reference 1 for a comprehensive presentation of the topic.

Conclusion With the advancement of age, several neurologic disorders present more frequently, and seniors are especially susceptible to seizures and epilepsy.

The high incidence of cerebrovascular disease and polypharmacy in seniors places them at particular risk. Pharmacists should be familiar with the symptomatic treatable causes of seizures, roche catalogue those that are drug-induced, particularly since polypharmacy roche catalogue a significant concern among geriatric patients.

With the advancement of age, several neurologic roche catalogue present more frequently, and seniors are especially susceptible to seizures and epilepsy. Gidal BE, Garnett Wr.

In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. Ferrendelli AJ, Lim HL. Epilepsy in the elderly. In: Hazzard WR, Roche catalogue JP, Halter JB, et al. Principles roche catalogue Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology.

New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Crismon ML, Buckley PF. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Roche catalogue, 6th ed. Pisani F, Oteri G, Costa Roche catalogue, et al. Effects of psychotropic drugs on seizure threshold. Semla TP, Beizer JL, Roche catalogue MD. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc.

Tao (Troleandomycin)- FDA JC, Wells BG, Hayes Roche catalogue. Johnston JA, Lineberry CG, Ascher JA. A 102 roche catalogue prospective study of seizures in association with bupropion. Nierenberg AA, Cole JO. Antidepressant adverse drug reactions. Beers MH, Porter RS, Jones TV, et al. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Beers MH, Berkow R, eds. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics.

Zagaria, PharmD, MS, CGP Senior Care Consultant Pharmacist and President of MZ Associates, Inc.

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