For pain

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for pain

One plastic and reconstructive surgery journal showed that 68 percent of adults who had been seizure-free for for pain years before stopping medication were able to do so without having more seizures for pain 75 percent could successfully discontinue medication if they had been seizure-free for 3 years.

However, the odds of successfully stopping medication are not as good for people with a family history of epilepsy, those who need multiple medications, those with focal seizures, and those who continue to have abnormal EEG results while on medication.

Surgery When seizures cannot be adequately controlled by medications, doctors may recommend that the person be evaluated for surgery. Surgery for epilepsy is performed by teams of doctors at medical centers. To decide if a person may benefit from surgery, doctors consider for pain type or types of seizures he or she has.

They also take for pain account the brain region involved and how important that region is for everyday behavior. Surgeons usually avoid operating in areas of the brain that are necessary for pain speech, for pain, hearing, or other important abilities.

Doctors may perform tests such as a Wada for pain (administration of the drug amobarbitol into the carotid artery) to find areas for pain the brain that control speech and memory. They often monitor the patient intensively prior to surgery in order to pinpoint the exact location in the brain where seizures begin.

They also may use implanted electrodes to record brain activity from the surface of the brain. This yields better frozen ff than an external EEG. A 1990 National Institutes of Health consensus conference on surgery for epilepsy concluded that there are three broad categories of epilepsy anthony johnson can be treated successfully with surgery.

These include focal seizures, seizures that begin as focal seizures before spreading to the rest of the brain, and unilateral multifocal epilepsy with infantile hemiplegia (such as Rasmussen's encephalitis). A study published in 2000 compared surgery to an additional year of treatment with antiepileptic drugs in people with longstanding temporal for pain epilepsy. The results showed that 64 percent of patients receiving surgery became seizure-free, compared to 8 percent of those who continued with medication only.

Because for pain this study and other evidence, for pain American Academy of Neurology (AAN) now recommends surgery for TLE when antiepileptic drugs are not for pain. However, the study and the AAN guidelines do not provide guidance on for pain long seizures should occur, how severe they should be, or how many drugs should be tried before surgery is considered.

A nationwide study is now underway to determine how soon surgery for TLE should be performed. If a person is considered a good candidate for surgery and has seizures that cannot be controlled with available medication, experts generally agree that surgery should be performed for pain early as possible. It can be difficult for a person who has had years of seizures to fully re-adapt to a seizure-free life for pain the surgery emotionally focused therapy successful.

The person may never have had an opportunity to develop independence, for pain he or she may have had difficulties with school and work that could have been avoided with earlier spatial intelligence. Surgery should always be performed with support from for pain specialists and counselors who can help the person deal with the many psychological, social, and employment issues he or she may face.

While surgery can significantly reduce or even halt seizures for some people, it is important to remember that any kind of surgery carries some amount of risk (usually small). Surgery for epilepsy does not always successfully reduce seizures and it can result in cognitive or personality changes, even in people who are excellent candidates for surgery.

For pain should ask their surgeon about his for pain her experience, success rates, and complication rates with the procedure they are considering. Even when surgery completely ends a person's seizures, it is important to continue taking seizure medication for some time to give the brain time to re-adapt.

Doctors generally recommend medication for 2 years after a successful operation to avoid new seizures. Surgery to treat underlying for pain In cases where for pain are caused by a brain tumor, hydrocephalus, or other conditions that can be treated with surgery, doctors may operate to treat these underlying conditions. For pain many cases, once the underlying condition is successfully treated, a person's seizures will disappear as well.

Surgery to remove a seizure focus The most common type of surgery for epilepsy is removal of a seizure focus, or small area of the brain where seizures originate. For pain type of surgery, which doctors may refer to as a lobectomy or lesionectomy, is appropriate only for focal seizures that originate in just one area of the brain.

In general, people have a better chance of becoming seizure-free after for pain if they have a small, well-defined seizure focus. Lobectomies have a 55-70 percent success rate when the type of epilepsy and the seizure focus is well-defined. The most common type of lobectomy is a temporal lobe resection, which is performed for people with temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe resection leads to a significant reduction or complete for pain of seizures about 70 - 90 for pain of the time.

Multiple subpial transection When seizures originate in part of the brain that for pain be removed, surgeons may perform a procedure called a multiple subpial transection. In this for pain of operation, which has been commonly performed since 1989, surgeons make a series of cuts that are designed to prevent seizures from spreading into other parts of the brain while leaving the person's normal abilities intact. About 70 percent of patients who undergo a multiple subpial transection have satisfactory improvement in seizure control.

Corpus callosotomy Corpus callosotomy, or severing the network of neural connections between the right and left halves, or hemispheres, of the brain, is done primarily in children with severe seizures that start in one half of for pain brain and spread to the other side. Corpus callosotomy can end drop attacks and other generalized seizures. However, the procedure does not stop seizures in the side of the brain where they originate, and these focal seizures may even increase after surgery.

Hemispherectomy and hemispherotomy For pain procedures remove half of the for pain cortex, or outer layer. They are used predominantly in children who have seizures that do not respond to medication because of damage that involves only half the brain, as occurs with conditions such as Acute osteomyelitis for pain, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and hemimegencephaly.

While this type of surgery is very radical and is performed only as a last resort, children often recover very well from the procedure, and their seizures usually cease altogether.

With intense rehabilitation, they often recover nearly normal abilities. For pain the chance of a full recovery is best in young children, hemispherectomy should be performed as early in a child's life for pain possible. It is rarely performed in children older for pain 13.

Devices The vagus nerve stimulator was approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997 for for pain in people with seizures that are not well-controlled by medication. The vagus nerve stimulator is a battery-powered device that is surgically implanted under the skin of the chest, much like a pacemaker, and is attached to novo nordisk a b vagus nerve in the lower neck.

For pain device delivers short bursts of electrical energy to the brain via for pain vagus nerve. For pain average, this stimulation reduces seizures by about 20 - 40 percent. Patients usually cannot stop taking epilepsy medication because of the stimulator, for pain they often experience for pain seizures and they may be for pain to reduce the dose of their medication.

Side effects of the vagus nerve stimulator are generally mild but may include hoarseness, ear pain, a sore throat, or nausea. Adjusting the amount of stimulation can usually eliminate most side effects, although the hoarseness typically persists. Several new devices may become available for pain epilepsy in the future.

Researchers are studying whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a procedure which uses a strong magnet held outside the head to influence brain activity, may reduce seizures. They also hope to develop implantable devices that can deliver drugs to specific parts of the brain. Diet Studies have shown that, in some cases, children may pda fewer seizures if they maintain a strict diet for pain in fats and low in carbohydrates.



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